OUR TEAM has a wealth of combined experience in applied microbiology research and delivering science services and solutions to industry.

BELINDA CHAPMAN

– Director /

Senior Research Microbiologist

Dr Belinda Chapman is an applied research microbiologist with 25 years experience across the food, health and environment sectors, including for Arnott's, Burns Philp, Sanitarium, the CSIRO, The Sydney Catchment Authority, Vitramed, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, as well as for the University of Tasmania and KPMG. She is an affiliate RHD supervisor of the University of Sydney.

MICHELLE BULL

– Senior Research Microbiologist

Dr Michelle Bull is an applied research microbiologist with 25 years experience across the food and health sectors, including nearly 20 years with the CSIRO. Michelle has worked with the food industry in Australia, Europe and the USA. Michelle is an affiliate RHD supervisor of the University of Sydney.

JANELLE BROWN

– Senior Research Microbiologist

Dr Janelle Brown is an applied research microbiologist with 20 years experience in food microbiology, including as a research trust fellow at the UK Institute of Food Research and the University of Aberdeen, as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Amsterdam, and at the CSIRO. Janelle is a Discipline Teacher for the University of Tasmania. 

EMMA WINLEY

– Applied Research Scientist

Emma Winley is a horticulturalist and applied microbiologist with 20 years experience in postharvest physiology of horticultural produce and postharvest microbiology. Emma has worked for the NSW Department of Agriculture, the CSIRO, the NSW Food Authority, Western Sydney University and Applied Horticultural Research.

MAYAN AMIEZER

– Research Scientist /

Communications Coordinator

Mayan Amiezer is a research scientist and experienced science communicator, including with the Museum of Human Disease and the Pint of Science festival. Mayan has a Bachelor of Medical Science with First Class Honours from the University of NSW and is currently completing her PhD in immunology of the gut mucosa with the University of NSW and the Garvan Institute of Medical Research.

SCOTT MITCHELL

– Research Microbiologist

Scott Mitchell is a research microbiologist and current employee and PhD student of Quantal Bioscience. Scott's PhD research topic is "The effect of microbiome composition on antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and horizontal gene transmission in the equine hindgut". Scott has a Bachelor of Medical Science with Honours from the University of Technology Sydney and is undertaking his PhD with Associate Professor Nick Coleman at the University of Sydney. 

DIEDRA SAMIOS

– Science Engagement Coordinator

Diedra Samios is an early childhood educator with a passion for science, especially microbiology, fermentation and food science.

ANDY RYLAND

– Associate Scientist

Andy Ryland is a horticulturalist and applied entomologist with 30 years experience in agriculture, horticulture and integrated pest management. Andy was a founding partner in and manager for 10 years of The Beneficial Bug Company , and was the inaugural secretary of the Australasian Biological Control Association. Andy consults broadly to the horticultural industry as Integrated Pest Management Consulting (IPMC).

OUR PUBLICATIONS, PRESENTATIONS and INDUSTRY WORKSHOPS

Keighley, C., Chen, S.C-A., Marriott, D., Pope, A., Chapman, B., Kennedy, K., Bak, N., Underwood, N., Wilson, H.L., McDonald, K., Darvall, J., Halliday, C., Kidd, S., Nguyen, Q., Hajkowicz, K., Sorrell, T.C., Van Hal, S., Slavin, M. 2019. Candidaemia and a risk predictive model for overall mortality: a prospective multicentre study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19:445.

 

Compeer, E. B., F. Kraus, M. Ecker, G. Redpath, M. Amiezer, N. Rother, P. R. Nicovich, N. Kapoor-Kaushik, Q. Deng, G. P. B. Samson, Z. Yang, J. Lou, M. Carnell, H. Vartoukian, K. Gaus and J. Rossy (2018). A mobile endocytic network connects clathrin-independent receptor endocytosis to recycling and promotes T cell activation. Nat Commun 9(1): 1597.

 

Chen, S. C.-A., Patel, S. Meyer, W., Chapman, B., Yu, H., Byth, K., Middleton, P.G., Nevalainen, H. Sorrel, T.C. 2017. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium and Lomentospora in vitro. Mycopathologia, 181:1103-1108.

 

Chapman, B., Slavin, M., Marriott, D., Halliday, C., Kidd, S., Arthur, I., Bak, N. Heath, C., Kennedy, K., Morrissey, O., Sorrell, T., van Hal, S., Keighley, C., Goeman, E., Underwood, N., Hajkowicz, K., Hofmeyr, A., Leung, M., Macesic, N., Botes, J., Blyth, C., Cooley, L., George, C.R., Kalukottege, P., Kesson, A., McMullan, B., Baird, R., Robson, J., Korman, T., Pendle, S., Weeks, K., Chen, S. 2017. The changing epidemiology of candidaemia in Australia. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 72:1103-1108.

 

Halliday, C.L., Chen, S. C-A., Kidd, S.E., van Hall, S., Chapman, B., Heath, C., Lee, A., Kennedy, K., Daveson, K., Sorrell, T.C., Morrisey, C.O., Marriott, D.J., Slavin, M.A. 2016. Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi causing invasive infection in Australia: support for current antifungal guideline recommendations. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 48:453-458.

 

Keighley, C., Chapman, B., Van Hal, S. Marriott, D., Slavin, M., Chen, S. 2016. Evolving patterns of candidemia: contemporary prospective case-control data from 2014 to 2015. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, Issue suppl_1, Fall 2016:1602.

 

Mitchell, S.W., Jaworski, A., Bull, M., Wong, C., Furnari, V., Chapman, B., Borody, T. Lyophilized fecal microbiota transplantation and cryoprotectants for viable bacteria preservation Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), San Diego, USA, May 2016.

 

Amiezer, M. and T. G. Phan (2016). Disentangling Tfr cells from Treg cells and Tfh cells: How to untie the Gordian knot. European Journal of Immunology 46(5): 1101-1104.

 

Chapman, B. on behalf of the Australian New Zealand Mycology Interest Group (ANZMIG) Candidemia Study II Investigators. Candidemia in Australia: changing epidemiology? Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting, Launceston, Australia, April 2016.

 

Sleiman, S., Halliday, C., Chapman, B., Brown, M., Lau, A., Chen, S. Identification of filamentous fungi in the clinical microbiology laboratory by MALDI TOF MS: robust reference spectra are essential. 26th European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 2016

 

Sleiman, S., Halliday, C., Chapman, B., Brown, M., Nitschke, J., Lau, A.,  Chen, S. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry for accurate identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium and Fusarium species in the Australian clinical setting. Submitted to Journal of Clinical Mycology, January 2016

 

Kennedy, K.J., Daveson, K., Slavin, M.A., van Hal, S.A., Sorrell, T.C., Lee, A., Marriott, D.J., Chapman, B., Halliday, C.L., Hajkowicz, K., Athan, E., Bak, N., Cheong, E., Heath, C.H., Morrissey, C.O., Kidd, S., Beresford, R., Blyth, C., Korman, T.M., Robinson, J.O., Meyer, W., Chen, S.C-A. Mucormycosis in Australia: contemporary epidemiology and outcomes. Accepted to Clinical Microbiology and Infection January 2016

 

Olivier, S.A., Smith, R., Bull, M.K., Chapman, B. Knoerzer, K. 2015. Apparatus for the simultaneous processing of mesophilic spores by heat-only and by high pressure and heat in a high pressure vessel to investigate synergistic spore inactivation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifset.2014.12.003.

 

Chapman, B., Duan, S., Middleton. P., Meyer, W., Dorahy, D., Wark, P., Patel, S., Kidd, S., Chapman, S., Grenville, H., Wood, M., Bell, S., George, N., Nimmo, G., Mckay, K., Cooper, P., Saddington, H., Cheney, J., Wainwright, C., Sorrell, T., Chen, S. Succession of non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa by mucoid strains influences fungal colonization in cystic fibrosis. Submitted for Infectious Diseases (ID) Week 2015, San Diego, USA, October 2015.

 

Lin, A. Jaworski, V. Furnari, C. Wong, M. Bull, B. Chapman, S. Paramsothy, T.J. Borody. Twelve week storage trial of microbial viability in lyophilized and frozen fecal microbiota preparations. Digestive Disease Week, Washington, D.C., USA, May 2015.

 

Chapman, B. on behalf of the Australian New Zealand Mycology Interest Group (ANZMIG) Candidemia Study II Investigators. 2015. Changing epidemiology of candidaemia in Australia: implications for empiric antifungal therapy? 19th International Society for Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM) Congress, Melbourne, May 2015.

 

Chen, S.C-A., Patel, S., Sorrell, T., Chapman, B., Yu, H., Byth, K., Middleton, P.G., Nevalainene, H., Meyer, W. 2015. Pseudomonas and Scedosporium interactions. 19th International Society for Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM) Congress, Melbourne, May 2015.

 

Buckow, R. and M. Bull. 2013. Advanced food preservation technologies. Microbiology Australia 34 (2), 108-111

 

Bull. M.K. and S.A. Olivier. 2013. Ready-to-eat meals via high pressure thermal processing. Food Australia 65(2): 30-31

 

Olivier, S.A., Bull, M.K., Chapman, B. 2012. Bacillus spp. spores produced at lower temperatures are more resistant to high pressure thermal processes but mineralization does not predict relative resistance. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 16:96-101.

 

Bradbury, M., Greenfield, P., Midgley, D., Li, D., Tran-Dinh, N., Vriesekoop, F. and Brown, J.L. 2012.  Draft genome sequence of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679, the common non-toxigenic surrogate for proteolytic Clostridium botulinumJournal of Bacteriology 194:  1631-1632.

 

Brown, J.L., Tran-Dinh, N., Chapman, B. 2012. Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 and its uses in the derivation of thermal processing scedules for low-acid shelf-stable foods and as a research model for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Journal of Food Protection, 75:779-792.

 

Olivier, S. A., Bull, M.K., Stone, G., van Dipenebeek, R.J., Kormelink, F., Jacops, L., Chapman, B. 2011. Strong and consistently synergistic inactivation of spores of spoilage-associated Bacillus and Geobacillus spp. by high pressure and heat compared with inactivation by heat alone. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77:2317-2324.

 

Knoerzer, K., Chapman, B. 2011. Effect of material properties and processing conditions on the prediction accuracy of a CFD model for simulating high pressure thermal (HPT) processing. Journal of Food Engineering, 104:404-413.

 

Bull, M.K., Steele, R.J., Olivier, S.A., Kelly, M., Chapman, B. 2010. Packaging under pressure: Effects of high pressure, high temperature processing on the barrier properties of commonly available packaging materials. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 11:533-537.

 

Palmer, A.K., Brown, J., Ross, T., Metcalf, D.A., Evans, K.J.  2010.  Potential for growth of E. coli in aerobic compost extract.  Compost Science and Utilization.  18:  152-161.

 

Chapman, B. High pressure pasteurisation and sterilisation – commercial applications and opportunities. FIESTA 2010: Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Applications Workshop, Werribee, Melbourne, 17th August 2010

 

Chapman, B., Scurrah, K.J., Ross, T. 2010. Contemporary formulation and distribution practices for cold-filled acid products: Australian industry survey and modelling of published pathogen inactivation data. Journal of Food Protection, 73:895-906.

 

Huang, Y., Begum, M., Chapman, B., Hocking, A.D. 2010. Effect of reduced water activity and matric potential on the germination of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 140:1-5.

 

Knoerzer, K., Buckow, R., Juliano, P., Chapman, B. Versteeg, C. 2010. Carrier optimisation in a pilot-scale high pressure sterilisation plant – an iterative CFD approach employing an integrated temperature descriptor (ITD). Journal of Food Engineering, 97:199-207.

 

Huang, Y., Wilson, M., Chapman, B., Hocking, A.D. 2010. Evaluation of the efficacy of four weak acids as antifungal preservatives in low acid intermediate-moisture model food systems. Food Microbiology, 27:33-36.

 

Chapman, B. Emerging solutions for safe milder thermal processing: innovative technologies, underpinning microbial knowledge and holistic risk assessment. 43rd Annual Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology Convention, Melbourne, July 2010

 

Knoerzer, K., Chapman, B., Juliano, P. CFD Modelling for simulating high pressure thermal processing: a useful tool for predicting temperature, flow and microbial inactivation distributions, and design optimisation. 43rd Annual Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology Convention, Melbourne, July 2010

 

Stone, G., Chapman, B., Lovell, D. 2009. Development of a log-quadratic model to describe microbial inactivation, illustrated by thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75:6998-7005.

 

Shabala, L., Bowman, J. Brown, J.L., Ross, T., McMeekin, T.A. and Shabala, S. 2009.  Ion transport and osmotic adjustment in E. coli in response to ionic and non-ionic osmotica.  Environmental Microbiology 11, 137-148.

 

Chapman, B. High pressure processing for microbiologically safe and stable foods. Meat and Livestock Australia High Pressure Processing Workshop, Werribee, Melbourne, 19th November 2009

 

X. I. Trejo Araya, N. Smale, D. Zabaras, E. Winley, C. Forde, C. M. Stewart and A. J. Mawson. 2009. Sensory perception and quality attributes of high pressure processed carrots in comparison to raw, sous-vide and cooked carrots. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 10 (4): 420-433.

 

Huang, Y., Chapman, B., Wilson, M., Hocking, A.D. 2009. Effect of agar concentration on the matric potential of glycerol agar media and the germination and growth of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 133:179-185.

 

Chapman, B. Application of novel technologies in extending product shelf-life. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology (AIFST) WA Branch Seminar: Predicting and controlling the shelf life of foods, Perth, 27th July 2009

 

Chapman, B., Ross, T. 2009. E. coli and Salmonella are protected against acetic acid, but not hydrochloric acid, by hypertonicity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75:3605-3610.

 

Bull, M. K., Olivier, S. A., Van Diepenbeek, R., Kormelink, F., Chapman, B. 2009. Synergistic inactivation of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum spores by high pressure and heat is strain and product dependent. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75:434-445.

 

Chapman, B. Determining thermal inactivation of microorganisms in foods. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology (AIFST) WA Branch Seminar: Predicting and controlling the shelf life of foods, Perth, 27th July 2009

 

Chapman, B. Innovative food processing technologies in the Australian regulatory environment. 11th Annual Food Regulations and Labelling Standards Conference, Sydney, 9 – 10th November 2009

 

Chapman, B., Huang, Y. First and future applications of the IFR Gel Cassette to fungal growth studies. First International Workshop on the IFR Gel Cassette, Paris, 18 – 19th May 2009

 

Chapman, B., Scurrah, K., Ross, T. Product formulation and food safety hurdles. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology (AIFST) 13th Food Microbiology Conference, Melbourne, 26th March 2009

 

Chapman, B. Microbiological food safety and innovative technologies. 4th Innovative Foods Centre Conference, Brisbane, 17th – 18th September 2008

 

Wan, J., Chapman, B., Coventry, J., Sanguansri, P., Versteeg, C. Innovative processing technologies for microbiologically safe quality foods China International Food Safety & Quality Conference & Expo, Beijing, China, September 2008

 

Chapman, B., Winley, E., Fong, A.S.W., Hocking, A.D., Stewart, C.M., Buckle, K.A. 2007. Ascospore inactivation and germination by high pressure processing is affected by ascospore age. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8:531-534.

 

Huang, Y., Wilson, M., Chapman, B., Hocking, A. Food structure and fungal growth. Australian Society for Microbiology Annual General Meeting, Adelaide, July 2007

 

Moir, C., Chapman, B., Hocking, A. Challenge studies of ready-to-drink beverages – the holistic view, International Association for Food Protection conference, Florida, USA, July 2007

 

Mathys, A., Chapman, B., Bull, M., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. 2007. Flow cytometric assessment of Bacillus spore response to high pressure and heat. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8:519-527.

 

Chapman, B. Theoretical aspects of food shelf-life validation; Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology (AIFST) NSW Food Microbiology Group Shelf-life versus Use-by Half-Day Seminar for Industry, Sydney, 21st May 2007

 

Scurrah, K., Chapman, B., Ross, T. Traditional food safety concepts: challenges and solutions. A case study with cold-filled acid sauces. Presentation at Food Safety and Food Manufacturing Factory Focus Workshop hosted by the Victorian Food Industry and High Performance Consortium and the Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence, Shepparton, Victoria, 17th May 2007

 

Moir, C., Chapman, B. Food safety chart toppers: lessons learnt. Presentation at Food Safety and Food Manufacturing Factory Focus Workshop hosted by the Victorian Food Industry and High Performance Consortium and the Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence, Shepparton, Victoria, 17th May 2007

 

Chapman, B., Olivier, S., Hocking, A.D. Turning down the heat on spore-forming spoilage organisms. 40th Annual Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology Convention, Melbourne, July 2007

 

Scurrah, K., Ross, T., Chapman, B. Microbial safety of mayonnaises, sauces and dressing manufactured in Australia. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology Annual Conference, Melbourne, June 2007

 

Chapman, B., Jensen, N., Ross, T., Cole, M. 2006. Salt, alone and in combination with sucrose, can improve Escherichia coli (O157) survival in model acidic sauces. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72:1565-1572.

 

Mathys, A., Chapman, B., Bull, M., Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. Measuring the effect of high pressure thermal processing on bacterial spores. Food Innovation: Emerging Science, Technologies and Applications – 3rd Innovative Foods Centre Conference, 16-17 October 2006

 

Bull, M. and Chapman, B. Microbial inactivation by high pressure thermal processes. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology 12th Food Microbiology Conference, Sofitel Wentworth Hotel, Sydney, February 2006

 

Chapman, B. pH elevating Bacillus in acid foods; Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology (AIFST) Food Spoilage Update Half-Day Seminar for Industry, Sydney, 6th June 2006

 

Chapman, B.; Moir, C.J. A holistic view of applying hurdles for safe and stable food; Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence (AFSCoE) Industry Workshop, Melbourne, 16th November 2006

 

Chapman, B. Interfacing science at the microbial membrane. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology 12th Food Microbiology Conference, Sofitel Wentworth Hotel, Sydney, February 2006

 

Bull, M.K., M. Hayman, C M. Stewart, E A. Szabo, S J. Knabel. 2005. Effect of prior growth temperature, type of enrichment medium, and temperature and time of storage on recovery of Listeria monocytogenes following high pressure processing of milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology 101: 53-61.

 

Chapman, B. External and in-house tools for validation of food safety and hygiene. Australian Food Safety Centre of Excellence (AFSCoE) Industry Workshop, Melbourne, November 2005

 

Bull, M.K., E.A. Szabo, M. B. Cole and C. M. Stewart 2005. Towards validation of process criteria for high pressure pasteurization of orange juice using predictive models. Journal of Food Protection 68: 949-954.

 

Olivier, S., Chapman, B. 2004. pH-elevating Bacillus spp. in acid pasteurised foods. Microbiology Australia, 25 (5) 34-35.

 

Bull, M.K., K. Zerdin, E. Howe, D. Goicoechea, P. Paramanandhan, R. Stockman, J. Sellahewa, E. A. Szabo, R. L. Johnson and C. M. Stewart.  2004.  The effect of high pressure processing on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of Valencia and Navel orange juice. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 5: 135-149.

 

Chapman, B. Survival of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in acid foods. 11th Australian Food Microbiology Conference, Noosa, March 2003

 

Chapman, B. Simple but elegant innovative techniques. 35th Annual Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology Convention, Sydney, July 2002

 

Chapman, B. Anaerobic Sporeforming Rods in Spoilage of Processed Foods: Causes & Diagnosis, 2001, AIFST NSW Food Microbiology Group, pp. 295 – 306.

 

Brown, J.L. and Booth, I.R.  (1999).  Physiological responses of foodborne microorganisms to pH constraints.  International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) IXth International Congress of Bacteriology & Applied Microbiology and Australian Society for Microbiology joint Scientific Meeting, Sydney, 16-20 Aug.

 

Chapman, B. Lactobacillus spp. from fermented plant foods, and their potential as probiotics against Bacillus cereus. 10th World Congress of Food Science & Technology, Sydney, October 1999

 

Chapman, B.; Hosken, B. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus by Lactobacillus spp. Australian Society for Microbiology Annual Scientific Meeting, Hobart, September 1998

 

Bell, P., Deere, D., Shen, J., Chapman, B., Bissinger, P., Attfield, P., Veal, D. 1998. A flow cytometric method for rapid selection of novel industrial yeast hybrids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64:1669–1672.

 

Wild, B.L., Wilson, C.L. and Winley, E.L. 1998. Apple host defence reactions as affected by cycloheximide, phosphonate, and citrus green mould, Penicillium digitatum Disease Resistance in Fruit. ACIA Proceedings No 80. Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research, Canberra. p. 155-161

 

Bowman, J.P., McCammon, S.A., Brown, J.L., and McMeekin, T.A.  1998.  Glacincola punicea  gen. nov., sp. nov. and Glacincola pallidula  gen. nov., sp. nov.:  psychrophilic, marine bacteria from Antarctic sea-ice habitats.  International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology  48(4), 1213-1222.

 

Bowman, J.P., McCammon, S.A., Lewis, T.E., Skerratt, J.H., Brown, J.L., Nichols, D.S. and McMeekin, T.A.  1998.  Psychroflexus torquis gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrophilic species from Antarctic sea ice and reclassification of Glavobacterium Gondwanese (Dobson et al, 1993) as Psychroflexus gondwanese gen. nov., comb. nov.  Microbiology  144(6), 1601-1609.

 

Brown, J.L., Ross, T., McMeekin, T.A. and Nichols, P.D.  1997.  The acid habituation of Escherichia coli  and the potential role of cyclopropane fatty acids in low pH tolerance.  International Journal of Food Microbiology  37, 163-173.

 

McMeekin, T.A., Brown, J.L., Krist, K., Miles, D., Neumeyer, K., Nichols, D.S., Olley, J., Presser, K., Ratkowsky, D.A., Ross, T., Salter, M. and Soontranon, S.  (1997)  Quantitative Microbiology:  A basis for food safety.  Emerging Infectious Diseases  3:  541-549.

 

Bowman, J.P., McCammon, S.A., Brown, J.L., Nichols, P.D. and McMeekin, T.A.  1997.  Psychroserpens burtonensis  gen.  nov., sp.  nov., and Gelidibacter algens  gen.  nov., sp.  nov., Psychrophilic Bacteria Isolated from Antarctic Lacustrine and Sea Ice Habitats.  International  Journal of Systematic Bacteriology  47, 670-677.

 

Nichols, D.S., Brown, J.L., Nichols, P.D. and McMeekin, T.A.  1997.  Production of eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids by an Antarctic bacterium:  response to growth temperature.  FEMS Microbiology Letters  152:  349-354


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